Scientists at Edinburgh’s Heriot-Watt University are attempting to understand the proteins that may be responsible for the development of Type 2 diabetes.

It is the same SNARE proteins that Botox treatment targets, as they are responsible for muscle contraction. Botox targets these proteins and effectively freezes them, therefore halting muscle contraction.

As well as in other areas of the body these proteins, called SNARE, reside in the beta-cells within the pancreas. Researchers are using molecular microscopic techniques to determine exactly what happens with these cells and insulin release.

The steady release of insulin made by these cells helps to control glucose levels in the body. When there is a consistently high level of glucose production in the body, which is what happens in obese patients, this process stops functioning properly and leads to Type 2 diabetes.

These SNARE proteins, which are the equivalent to the size of ten-thousandth of a human hair, will be observed by Dr Colin Rickman and his team of researchers. They hope that this will help to understand exactly how the beta-cells produce insulin and therefore what happens when they stop functioning. The intention is that these findings will help find a cure to the chronic condition.

The number of people with Type 2 diabetes in the UK rose by 1.5 million between 1996 and 2012, and it’s predicted that the number of sufferers will hit 5 million by the year 2025. This recent and projected growth in number is due to the rising numbers of those who are overweight and obese.

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As a person gets older, wrinkles, age marks, and other skin blemishes become prevalent. Older scars obtained in a person’s younger years become more noticeable, such as acne scars. Volume loss in the skin, photo damage, and hyperactive muscles are other common sources of wrinkles and age lines. Women aren’t the only people looking for a way to get their younger appearance back Men are also interested in looking and feeling younger. More and more men are looking into dermal wrinkle fillers and Botox injections to get their skin looking young and fresh as it once was.

As a person ages, the natural moisture in the skin and the rate that cells renew themselves slows down. This results in skin that is dry and scaly. Wrinkles can occur when emotions reach their extremes. Emotions such as anger can cause wrinkles and furrows over time. This is due to a certain expression being held for a long time, for instance an angry scowl or frown. The muscles between the eyebrows contract during certain emotional states, and can cause furrows and creases that get deeper over time.

Botox, otherwise known as botulinum toxin A, was approved by the FDA in 2002 as a treatment for wrinkles and frown lines. This cosmetic treatment is comprised of purified protein that diminishes a certain muscle’s ability to contract. The Botox is injected directly into the muscle and prevents over-activity of that particular muscle. When first injected, the Botox relaxes the muscle temporarily, cutting off the formation of wrinkles. The skin over the muscle relaxes and softens, lessening the look of wrinkles.

Another option for younger and smoother looking skin are dermal wrinkle fillers. Dermal wrinkle fillers are injected into the deep lines of the face, such as smile lines, “crows feet” beside the eyes, and other areas where wrinkles form. Dermal wrinkle fillers can restore volume to hollow skin or an area of the face that has lost natural fat. Collagen, for example, can be injected into the lips to give them a plumper and fuller look.

Cosmetic fillers can be injected to worry lines in the forehead, and hollow areas in the cheeks or under the eyes to bring back some of the volume that was lost. Skin cosmetic fillers restore the facial skin so they look fresh and young again. Many FDA approved dermal fillers are available on the market these days to treat a man’s wrinkles and age lines.