Scientists at Edinburgh’s Heriot-Watt University are attempting to understand the proteins that may be responsible for the development of Type 2 diabetes.

It is the same SNARE proteins that Botox treatment targets, as they are responsible for muscle contraction. Botox targets these proteins and effectively freezes them, therefore halting muscle contraction.

As well as in other areas of the body these proteins, called SNARE, reside in the beta-cells within the pancreas. Researchers are using molecular microscopic techniques to determine exactly what happens with these cells and insulin release.

The steady release of insulin made by these cells helps to control glucose levels in the body. When there is a consistently high level of glucose production in the body, which is what happens in obese patients, this process stops functioning properly and leads to Type 2 diabetes.

These SNARE proteins, which are the equivalent to the size of ten-thousandth of a human hair, will be observed by Dr Colin Rickman and his team of researchers. They hope that this will help to understand exactly how the beta-cells produce insulin and therefore what happens when they stop functioning. The intention is that these findings will help find a cure to the chronic condition.

The number of people with Type 2 diabetes in the UK rose by 1.5 million between 1996 and 2012, and it’s predicted that the number of sufferers will hit 5 million by the year 2025. This recent and projected growth in number is due to the rising numbers of those who are overweight and obese.

Cosmetic Courses offer aesthetic training to medical professionals throughout the UK. If you would like information on any of our training courses, please call us on 01844 390110 or email [email protected].


There is a one vertical Procerus muscle and two Corrugator muscles that cause wrinkles and frowning in the area between the eyebrows.

The frotanus muscle runs upwards from the bridge of the nose and inserts into the skin.

Muscle fibres run upwards along the muscle and, when they contract, this produces shortening of the muscle and a cross line transverse (horizontal line at the upper bridge of the nose).

The Corrugate muscles run upwards and sideways from the bone in the frown area to the skin above the inner aspect of the eyebrow.

When these muscles contract they pull the eyebrows inwards, downwards and cause either vertical or slightly slanted lines on either side of the frown areas.

The muscles run in different directions and therefore the contractions cause lines in different orientation. It is important to know which muscle is responsible for which line when treating the frown area with Botox in order to correctly target the right muscle. In future blog posts we’ll talk about variation in muscles between other people and tell-tale signs if someone has had Botox Therapy.

It’s not that you can’t see results with at-home microdermabrasion kits, but for those who prefer a more amazing treatment, a home chemical peel provides a more intense alternative. A kit that allows you to do your own treatments from the comfort of your home is an easy way to help improve the look and feel of your skin, but always remember that these kits must be used safely and correctly. A chemical peel works its way deep into the layers of your skin and can aid in reducing many imperfections that lie under your skin. This can help improve imperfections such as:

  • Acne Scars
  • Wrinkles
  • Skin Patches
  • Fine Lines
  • Enlarged Pores

There are many at-home chemical peel kits available on the market today. The difference in these kits are the groups of chemical acids that are used. The most common types of acids that can be found in home chemical peel kits include:

  • Salicylic Acid
  • Glycolic acid
  • Lactic acid
  • Trichloroethanoic Acid (TCA)

The more you learn about each type of these acids and the type of skin problems each is used for can better prepare you for choosing the right at-home chemical peel for your needs. Salicylic acid is most commonly used as an anti-acne treatment. Glycolic acid is effective for removing dead skin cells and increasing your skin’s rejuvenation rate. Lactic acid is known as a chemical that is effective as an anti-aging treatment. TCA has proven to be an effective ingredient that can be used to treat a number of skin problems, proving effective for acne treatment, scarring, wrinkles, and a number of other skin-related problems.

When you find an at-home chemical peel kit that best suits your needs, it is important to perform the procedure correctly. All makeup should be removed and the area that is going to be treated should be cleaned well. It is recommended to use an astringent lotion to help purify the skin. Follow the directions and apply only the exact amount of treatment that is recommended. You should then apply the peeling acid with a brush to help avoid the area around your lips, nose, and eyes. Once you peel the solution from the skin you will need to wait for the chemical to take action, which will usually be around five minutes.

Remove any excess peeling cream with a napkin and then use warm water to wash your face. You will then want to use a clean, delicate cloth to dry your face. To ensure the hydration of your skin, you will then want to use a post-peeling cream. This procedure can be done twice in a week, with a break of one month recommended before using the chemical peel again.

These at home chemical peel treatments have risen in popularity as they are a more affordable solution to professional dermatological services. However, it may be a good idea to check with your dermatologist to get advice on what might be the best at home chemical peel kit for your needs.

Many people wonder if microdermabrasion chemical peels exist because the procedure of microdermabrasion and that of the chemical peel are associated as they have many similarities between them. The following article will explain both procedures and how they are alike and different.

Microdermabrasions and chemical peels work on skin in similar ways as the aim of both is to scrape off the outer later of skin so as to rid the skin of dead cells, debris, and even minor scaring. Apart from this general similarity, there are significant differences between the two procedures, the most important of which is the method of peeling that is used.

Microdermabrasion is a mechanical method of peeling in which microcrystals are used to exfoliate the skin. Chemical peels, on the other hand, use acid solutions to chemically remove the outer layer of skin. Because the microdermabrasion is relatively gentle of a procedure compared to a chemical peel, it is often used to treat smaller imperfections such as clogged and/or enlarged poors, fine lines and wrinkles, sunspots, and mild scarring. The entire procedure usually lasts only a couple of sessions.

Chemical peels are a more intensive procedure, so they can be used to treat more serious skin problems such as age spots, deep scars, hyperpigmentation, and deeper wrinkles. The strength of the acid solution used can be varied, so depending on the severity of the skin problem at hand, the appropriate treatment must be determined and administered.

The materials for both the microdermabrasion and the chemical peel are available on the market, but it is recommended that these procedures are not attempted at home without the experience of a professional. Because it is a simpler, less invasive or traumatic procedure, microdermabrasion recovery lasts only hours to a few days. Chemical peels, because of the intensity of the procedure, can require a recovery time of one week up to almost three months. These skin treatments can be used to take care of damages to the face, neck, chest, back, and hands. The treatment itself normally takes about half an hour for the face and one hour for the chest and neck.

As a person ages, the skin of the cheeks and lower portion of the face loses it’s elasticity. Wrinkles begin to form, and the lips lose their volume. Lips and skin can regain that volume by injecting dermal fillers. Dermal fillers are components that are injected directly into the skin to address these ageing issues. There are several types of dermal fillers. Some are comprised of human or animal tissue, while others are made of a synthetic material. Dermal fillers can either be temporary, permanent, or semi-permanent.

Depending on the situation, one dermal filler might be better than another. Temporary hyaluronic acid fillers are the most popular variety of dermal fillers. This type has been proven to be safe and efficient. The skin naturally contains hyaluronic acid, but in a matter of days it’s broken down by the body and is replaced. Temporary hyaluronic acid fillers are made so these particular molecules are better balanced in order to slow down the rate that they break down. The results of using a temporary hyaluronic acid filler can last anywhere from a couple of months to up to two years, depending on how the filler is applied. There’s no need to worry about improper placement of the product or lumpiness. A component called hyaluronidase is able to dissolve the temporary hyaluronic acid filler.

In Australia, a few brands of this type of dermal filler are Restylane, Jevederm, and Esthelis. These products come in various sized syringes. While some products merge with surrounding tissue when they’re injected, others will stay exactly where they’re placed. Because of this, certain products will work better on one spot of the face than they will on another spot.

The product Esthelis, for example, is soft and is able to be injected near the surface of the skin to clear up superficial wrinkles. Products that are thicker can cause over-correction or lumpiness. A thicker product like Jevederm Ultra Plus is useful in treating nasolabial lines as well as the marionette area of the face. Cheek augmentations can be achieved through using Juvederm Voluma, which is an even thicker substance than Juvederm Ultra Plus. Products that are thicker have a tendency to last longer than those that aren’t as thick.

As a person ages, it’s normal to change dermal filler products to best suit the needs of the patient. It’s always best to consult a doctor before using any type of filler product.

As a person gets older, wrinkles, age marks, and other skin blemishes become prevalent. Older scars obtained in a person’s younger years become more noticeable, such as acne scars. Volume loss in the skin, photo damage, and hyperactive muscles are other common sources of wrinkles and age lines. Women aren’t the only people looking for a way to get their younger appearance back Men are also interested in looking and feeling younger. More and more men are looking into dermal wrinkle fillers and Botox injections to get their skin looking young and fresh as it once was.

As a person ages, the natural moisture in the skin and the rate that cells renew themselves slows down. This results in skin that is dry and scaly. Wrinkles can occur when emotions reach their extremes. Emotions such as anger can cause wrinkles and furrows over time. This is due to a certain expression being held for a long time, for instance an angry scowl or frown. The muscles between the eyebrows contract during certain emotional states, and can cause furrows and creases that get deeper over time.

Botox, otherwise known as botulinum toxin A, was approved by the FDA in 2002 as a treatment for wrinkles and frown lines. This cosmetic treatment is comprised of purified protein that diminishes a certain muscle’s ability to contract. The Botox is injected directly into the muscle and prevents over-activity of that particular muscle. When first injected, the Botox relaxes the muscle temporarily, cutting off the formation of wrinkles. The skin over the muscle relaxes and softens, lessening the look of wrinkles.

Another option for younger and smoother looking skin are dermal wrinkle fillers. Dermal wrinkle fillers are injected into the deep lines of the face, such as smile lines, “crows feet” beside the eyes, and other areas where wrinkles form. Dermal wrinkle fillers can restore volume to hollow skin or an area of the face that has lost natural fat. Collagen, for example, can be injected into the lips to give them a plumper and fuller look.

Cosmetic fillers can be injected to worry lines in the forehead, and hollow areas in the cheeks or under the eyes to bring back some of the volume that was lost. Skin cosmetic fillers restore the facial skin so they look fresh and young again. Many FDA approved dermal fillers are available on the market these days to treat a man’s wrinkles and age lines.

Perlane is a dermal filler that was created to minimise the appearance of facial folds and wrinkles. In many cases it is capable of complete wrinkle removal since it restores a great deal of lostperlane cosmetic courses facial volume. As the skin ages the natural collagen present begins to diminish. Over time this will sometimes result in sagging skin, facial folds, lines, and wrinkles.

Perlane is made of a stabilized hyaluronic acid gel that has particles thicker than those of other hyaluronic acid based fillers such as Restylane. The denser composition allows it to be more easily moulded to a patient’s face and thus produces the most natural look possible of all the hyaluronic acid based dermal fillers. Because it is not derived from animal sources like many collagen based fillers are, it may be used in patients without allergy testing. Perlane is made entirely of hyaluronic acid while other dermal fillers such as Restylane have a hyaluronic acid base but have animal collagen added to them.

Perlane may be used in a variety of facial areas. The nasolabial folds running from the corner of the nose to the outer edges of the mouth are one of the most common areas that patients have  injected. It may also be used to add some volume to the area underneath the eyes if a patient has sunken eyes. Virtually any area of the face that has wrinkling or skin folds due to loss of volume can be treated effectively with injections. A popular use for this product today is lip enhancement. Perlane can be safely injected into the lips to produce additional volume or create the appearance of an overall larger mouth.

Perlane typically lasts for about six to nine months, though some patients continue to see benefits from treatment for as long as one year. While the price is typically higher than that of some other dermal fillers, this product is longer lasting and presents a more natural appearance than other dermal fillers do.

Treatment with Perlane normally takes no longer than 30 to 45 minutes. The injection process is usually not painful for patients though the administering physician may choose to inject a local anesthetic or to apply a topical anesthetic to minimise any discomfort.

Cosmetic surgery is a way to achieve a youthful appearance. It is particularly helpful in erasing marks of aging associated with skin changes,Dermal Fillers ranging from wrinkles to the loss of subcutaneous fat and dermal collagen with Dermal Fillers.

While the most well-known method of tightening the face around the skin is through a surgical face lift, a less well-known, but equally effective, method is dermal filling.

Although dermal filling may sound like a revolutionary new trend in aesthetic medicine it has been around for over a century. In the 1890s, dermal filling consisted of removing fatty tissue from one part of the body where it was not needed, like from sagging fat in the arms, and injecting it to another part where it was needed, like the wrinkling skin of a face. Today, a variety of many more filler choices are available. These fillers are said to work better and to last longer than their earlier counterparts.

Bovine collagen was popular in the United States in the 1980s. Results were claimed to last as long as eighteen months, but the reality was closer to five months, with three months being the average. Nevertheless bovine collagen became the standard by which other fillers were assessed.

Human collagen, collagen derived from human beings that was cultivated in the laboratory, replaced bovine collagen in popularity. Then researchers began to look for something even more compatible with the patient’s body. They arrived at the autologen method. In this method, human collagen is still used, but this time it comes directly from the patient‘s own tissues. This collagen, derived from the patient’s own body, is made into a sterile suspension of fibres. Three square inches of skin can be manufactured to supply 1 ml of 3.5% collagen. This collagen is used to treat wrinkles, lines, scars, and sagging lips.

An alternative to injecting fillers has been autologous collagen. By stimulating an inflammation in the patient, the resulting new collagen deposits are harvested and fat is then mixed with sterile distilled water.

Other viscous fluids have also been tested and used in cosmetic surgery. These include the use of fillers made out of recycled skin, hyaluronic acid, and hybrid technologies.

The recycled skin came from rehabilitation centres for burn victims and was processed for use in aesthetic medicine. Hyaluronic acid, a protein in the skin of mammals, including humans, has been used to form a gel. Finally, artificial Dermal Fillers suspended in bovine collagen have been used to treat wrinkles and scars.

When fine lines develop around the forehead, crow’s feet around the eyes and wrinkles around the mouth, it is a sign of aging that is more obvious than a change in hair colour and density or a change in body posture.

Skin, consisting of bonded layers, begins to sag and become lumpy as a person ages. What is basically happening is that the skin loses its elasticity. This is usually a result of a depletion of three proteins common in skin: collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid.

Collagen is a fibrous protein found in skin, bone, cartilage, muscles, and tendons. It works to connect body tissue. It makes up 25 percent of the protein in the human body, and it is even found in teeth. Like a glue, it holds the tissues of the body together, including the layers of the skin.

Elastin is a protein that pulls back the skin when it is stretched. In addition to keeping the skin elastic and flexible, it keeps the skin smooth. This is why your mouth returns back to its normal shape after using the muscles of your face when talking.

The third essential protein for a youthful, healthy skin is hyaluronic acid. The more of this protein that is lost, the more aged a person begins to look. Fortunately, apart from cosmetics, it is also possible to take nutritional supplements to restore levels of hyaluronic acid. Moisture is lost because of lower amounts of hyaluronic acid. Diets rich in kelp, seaweed, and fish help maintain hyaluronic acid. People with Mediterranean or Asian diets appear to age slower with “plumper skin” than those people who live in cultures where refined foods filled with additives have become the norm. In cultures with poor diets, an enzyme called hyaluronidase begins to work against hyaluronic acid. Part of the process of restoring hyaluronic acid is to reduce the hyaluronidase enzyme.

Depletion of these three skin proteins is exacerbated by indulging in poor health habits like smoking, drinking alcohol, not drinking enough water, not eating nutritious food, not exercising, and getting an excessive sunburn. While taking care of your health by reversing all these conditions will go a long way to restoring your youthful appearance, you can also get relatively quick results by using lotions that provide the skin with what it needs to maintain its elasticity. Most anti-aging skin care programs work on restoring collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid.

Although getting wrinkles is a natural part of aging, it is possible to have younger, tighter skin for more years of your life by using the right skin care lotion.

What collagen does best is firm wrinkles and one of the best ways to combat wrinkles is to use products that have both collagen and skin tightening ingredients.

Besides helping with wrinkles, collagen reduces cellulite. Both these conditions are a result of aging skin. As skin ages, its multiple layers held together by collagen and elastin begin to loosen. Not only do these bonds loosen, but the skin becomes lumpy and uneven, and we perceive these as wrinkles.

With so many products on the market, it can sometimes be difficult to decide on the best lotion to use, but before shopping for the right product, you should consider your personal needs like skin type, regions of your body that need toning and tightening, and so on. Considering your skin type is an important deciding factor in the product you choose. For example, those with dry skin will need more moisturizing ingredients. Some of the more effective products fill out the skin cells, rather than just reduce wrinkles. Look for products with natural ingredients like CoQ10, Cynergy TK, and Hyaluronic Acid. Prefer products with natural ingredients over those with chemical blends.

While collagen is used for both wrinkles and cellulite, you have to use different products for each of these conditions. One product will not work as a complete solution because the sources and the concentration of collagen used to treat wrinkles is different than the collagen used to reduce cellulite. Moreover, what works for one condition will not work for another. Collagen products are made from a variety of sources, including wool, herring, mackerel, soy, kelp, and even a special type of honey called makuna. In addition, other ingredients are added like moisturisers for wrinkle creams.

It bears repeating that it is important to identify your personal needs first before buying skin care products because otherwise you will choose products that will not work for you and be disappointed by the lack of results.